Thursday, December 12, 2019

Nursing Practice for Growth and Development -

Question: Discuss about theNursing Practice for Growth and Development. Answer: Assessment of Growth and Development Children often progress in a predictable and natural sequence from one development to another. But every child gains skills and grows on their own pace. Some children might gain more skills in one area (e.g. in language) and be behind in other areas (e.g. in motor development). These developments and milestones gained by children are classified in five major areas as: cognitive development, language development, motor development, emotional and social development and physical growth. Cognitive development is simply thinking and reasoning. Under this category James should be able to name a few colours, known some numbers and understand the counting concept, understand concepts of time better, can understand similarities between things and those that are not similar to them, be aware of his gender and can easily identify other peoples gender, know the difference between reality and fantasy e.g. through development of fears which will often be as a result of his imagination and being inventive by pretending when he is playing, can understand the connection between events even though cannot logically interpret them e.g. he might know that if u step on an insect it dies but still step on it and wait for it to move and can say his first and last names. In speech development, James should be able to use 5 to 6 word sentences, sing songs, tell stories and recall parts of it, can describe things that have happened to them and can clearly speak for even strangers to unders tand them. James should be in a position to depict gross motor skills as follows: stand on one foot for at least five seconds, stand on tiptoes for at least three seconds with no feet movements, can jump forward for at least three feet, can jump up unto a step which is 8inches high in approximation with two feet, while running, he can be able to change/alternate direction without balance loss, can jump over small hurdles easily, gallops for at least 10 feet, hops on a single foot for at least 5 times, can throw a ball to hit a 5 feet away target can walk straight (on a line) backwards and forward, can climb down and up the stairs without looking for support and can ride a babies bicycle that has training wheels. In addition to gross motor skills, James is expected to have the following fine motor skill (use his hands and fingers): using blocks to build a tower, draw squares and circles, use scissors to cut stuff, write a few capital letters and even draw a person with body parts (2 to 4 parts). If by kindergarten a child has not learned/developed these skills, or they are having a problem performing them, there should be a cause for concern. They may be weak or have low tone in their extremities or in their core. At the age of 4 years, James should receive the following vaccines: the fifth dose of Diphtheria, tetanus and acellular (DtaP); the fourth dose of inactivated Poliovirus (IPV); annual vaccination of influenza (IIV) which is 2 doses a year; the second dose of Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR); the second dose of Varicella (VAR). 0.5ml of DtaP dose is given as intramuscular (IM) injection either on the anterolateral thigh muscle or the deltoid muscle of the arm. 0.5 ml of Influenza, inactivated (IIV) dose is given through IM. For MMR, a 0.5ml dose is given by subcutaneous (subcut) injection through the fatty tissue over anterolateral thigh muscle or fatty tissue over triceps. Varcella is vaccinated using a 0.5ml dose through subcutaneous (subcut) injection). A lot of care should be taken in administration of vaccines. Parents and nurses should ensure the child gets all the required vaccines for their good health and well being. Risk Assessment and Management Relating to Children, Adolescents and Families Raising a happy healthy child is a major challenge in life, there is often difficulties to provide the child with emotional and mental stability good education, good health, basic needs and struggling to work. Adolescent parents like Melinda and Jakes father often lack key life skills and vital resources that are key to the parenting process; however, through DHS support they will be able to access medical care. Parenting is the major risk that Jake will face from his teenage parents. There might also be a risk of emotional and social well being for the child. Jake might be faced with difficulties of acquiring language and cognitive skills and also emotional and social skills like self confidence and self control since teenage parents are not likely to be responsive and supportive emotionally to their babies. At teen age, people are not prepared for adulthood challenges and even problem solving capabilities have not developed well. Teens are more likely to use ineffective coping stra tegies, make uninformed choices and lack the ability to think through vital decisions. In the case of Jake, his parents may misjudge when he is not feeling well; forget vaccination days and their significance in his health and even the developmental stages may be misjudged. As Jakes father works odd jobs to provide for him and his mother, he may not be available to give the emotional support needed to the child from him. Often the young mothers nutrition is poor. Teenage females mostly have diets low in iron and calcium. Iron requirement increase during pregnancy may cause its deficiency in the body. Moreover, those with iron deficiency risk may get their iron store depleted. This will affect the babys development too. Due to increased energy requirements in the mothers body, poor nutritional knowledge, lack of finances or other stressors, Melinda may face iron deficiency and the nurse should be able to provide care for her and the baby. There is need for nurses to develop therapeutic relationship with Jakes family keeping in mind the boundaries and the fact that Melinda is indigenous and may have some cultural boundaries. This relationship will allow the nurse to identify changes in childs health conditions and his well being, and also if there are difficulties in the child coping within his family. Family centered care could be best for Jake. Here, health providing staff and jakes family will be partners and will work together to meet Jakes needs. Working together and honouring each others expertise will bring excellent results. Patient family centred care is a constant endeavour to be quick to respond to the choices and needs o the family. This kind of care has core concepts that govern it including: Respect and dignity; medical personnel listen and respect family and patients choices, cultural backgrounds, family values, knowledge and believes. Information sharing; communications about patient and family are done without bias, therefore accurate, complete and timely information is received by each party to make decisions jointly. Involvement; practitioners support and encourage patients and families n care at every level of their choice. Collaboration; invite families to work with healthcare stuff to evaluate and develop programs. The healthcare staffs recognizes each family and child is unique with different cultures, beliefs life experiences, values, level of education and are treated equally. The openness in communication helps the family to be open to talk about good and bad which is important in delivering the best care needed. Empowering the family to be part of Jakes healthcare journey and continually monitoring him. With therapeutic and family centered care, Jake will receive required care and grow up healthy. Bibliography Adeleye, O. Ofili, N. (2010). Strengthening intersectorialcollaboration for primary health care in developing countries: can the health sector play broader roles?Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2010, 1-6. Australian Institute of Health and Wellness. (2016). Child health, development and wellbeing. Retrieved from Bach, S. Grant, A. (2015). Communication and interpersonal skills in nursing.Great Britain: Learning Matters. Barnes, M. Rowe, J. (Eds.) (2013).Child, youth and family health: strengthening communities.NSW,Chatswood:Elsevier. (Ch. 4) Fant, C. (2012). Major ethical dilemmas in nursing.Retrievedfrom Government of Western Australia. (2014). Child and antenatal nutrition manual growth monitoring and action. Retrieved from Haley, C. (Ed.). (2016).Pillitteri'schild and family health nursing in Australia and New Zealand(2nded.). Sydney:WoltersKluwerLippincottWilliams Wilkins.(Ch. 55) Hill, M., Head, G., Lockyer, A., Reid, B. Taylor (2015).Children's services: working together.New York;Routledge. Mathews, B. Scott, D. (2014).Mandatory reporting of child abuse and neglect.Melbourne: Child Family Community Australia information exchange, Australian Institute of Family Studies. Retrieved from Mitchell, L. (2011). Domestic violence in Australia - an overview of the issues. Retrieved from Staunton, P. Chirella, M. (2013).Law for nurses andmidwives(7th ed.). Sydney:Elsevier.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Professionals Responsibility for Fraud Detection

Question: Discuss about the Professionals Responsibility for Fraud Detection. Answer: Introduction: Auditing refers to the process of examining and verifying the various financial business accounts of an organization or a business. Auditing is a vast area that needs some specific steps to complete (Glover, Prawitt and Messier 2014). The most important and the first step in audit process is Audit Planning. Audit planning is the process to develop the strategies for conducting the audit and to identify the main and crucial audit issues. In this step it needs to be ensured that that appropriate attention is given to the most important areas; the potential and crucial problematic areas are properly identified and there is enough coordination for the audit process. On a more precise note, it is the step where the audit issues are identified that needs to be addressed in the documents of audit planning and the nature, timing and extent of audit are determined (DeZoort, Harrison and Schnee 2012). Based on the given three case studies, the crucial audit issues are identified below: As per the given scenario, City Ltd is a major property developer in Brisbanes central business district. However, it has been seen that the commercial property sector is not going well due to a massive downturn in this particular business sector. On the other hand, there is an abundance of office spaces of the city. For these two major reasons, no buyers are secured to buy the any property in that particular area. This reason contributes to business losses for City Ltd as the company is not able to develop or sale any kind of properties. Two major audit issues need to be addressed in the audit document. The first issue is to find out the reason for the downturn in that particular business sector. The second major issue is to find out the reasons that lead to the abundance of the city office spaces in Brisbanes central business district. According to this cases study, Web Ltd. is a business organization that has purchased new computer software. There are certain reasons behind the purchase of this computer software as the new software will provide more reliable and effective information to the organization so that the quality of the management reporting can be improved. In this regard, the main audit issue is to find out the efficiency of the new installed computer software. For this purpose, the new software need to be run through a trial so that it can be identified that whether the software is able to provide the essential information or not. On the other hand, the running and maintain expenses are another audit issues that need to be addressed. All these expenses need to be in the budget of the company. These are the two major audit issues in this regard (Kim, Nicolaou and Vasarhelyi 2013). As per the given scenario, Beauty Pty Ltd. has established a overseas branch and the inventories have been transferred to this branch so that lead time can be reduced. In this process, there are some major audits issues are there. First of all, it is needed to be made sure that the establishment of the overseas outlet will be profitable for the company. After that it needs to be taken into consideration that whether the decision of transferring the inventories will contribute to the minimization of lead time or not. The next audit issue is to find out that wheatear it is a wise decision to distribute the free samples of the products of the company as a part of marketing strategy. These audit issues need to be addressed. Two types of audit approaches can be seen; they are Test of Control Approach and Substantive Approach. The deciding factors about the selection of one of these approaches are discussed below: Test of Control Approach: Test of control approach is adopted in order to test the internal control system of the audited firm. On a more precise note, test of control approach is the test of the control procedure used by the audit client in order to prevent or detect material misstatement from the financial statement of the business organization (Grimm and White 2014). There are four kinds of audit procedures that are used in the test of control approach; they are Observation, Inquiries, Inspection and Reperformance. In the reperformance process, the auditors may start a new transaction in order to test the control approach adopted by the client and to measure the effectiveness of that approach. In the observation process, the auditors of the business may observe any business action process to test the control of the procedure. In the inspection process, the auditors examine and verify different business document for the approval signature, stamps, checkmarks and others. Overall, it can be said that test of control approach is adopted by the auditors to test the processes or procedures carried out by the audit client. Substantive Approach: The auditors adopt substantive approach in order to detect the possible material misstatement in the different financial report of the audited organization. In the process of substantive approach of audit, the auditors make it sure that the figures in the financial report of company are true; and they match those figures with the source documents of those transactions (Seidel 2014). There are various kinds of financial reports like income statement of the company, balance sheet and others. It needs to be remembered that the auditors do not test the entire financial document in the substantive approach; they take some samples based on the risk and judgment and they audit those documents. In case the internal control of a company is effective, the auditors will use less substantive method of audit. However, the auditors will use more substantive methods of audit, if the internal controls are less effective. As per the above case study, three kinds of risks are there; they are Inherent Risk, Control Risk and Detection Risk. Inherent risks refer to the errors and omissions in the financial reports that arise due to the failure in the control process of the company. Control risks refer to the material misstatement in the financial reports of the company. Lastly, detection risks are the risks which can be detected in the near future. The audit approaches are adopted based on these three kinds of risks. Substantive approach will be adopted in case of the control risks as material misstatements are there. Test of control approach will be applied in case of the inherent risk as these risks arise due to the ineffectiveness of internal control of the organization (Reason 2016). In case of the accuracy and completeness of depreciation expenses, test of control will be the optimal approach that can be adopted. There are certain reasons behind this statement. Setting up the method of depreciation is the internal control process of the company. On the other hand, maintaining the expenses of depreciation is also the internal control matter of the company. Hence, it is optimal to adopt the test of control for depreciation. However, at the time of preparing the annual report, substantive approach can be adopted at a minimum level to verify the source and figures of the depreciation expenses (Lee 2016). Accounting is the process of collecting, recording, processing and storing different kinds of financial data and information from the daily activities of the organization so that they can used for the purpose of the preparation of the financial reports of the company (Kaplan and Atkinson 2015). These accounting data and information also help the senior management of the organization in the decision making process. On the other hand, auditing refers to the process of examination and verification of those accounting as well as financial data so that the financial report of the company can reflect the true financial image of the company. It is necessary that the annual report of any organization include the true and relative financial information about the company as the investment decision of the investors wholly depends on the annual report. Thus, from the above discussion, it can be understood that there is a deep connection between the accounting system and the auditing as for the s uccessful completion the audit process of a company, the effective communication of the relevant accounting information is utmost important. In this regard, it can be said that accounting and auditing are the two sides of the same coin. At the time of conducting the audit process, it is desired that the internal as well as the external auditors are provided with the necessary relevant data and information for the ease of their work. This can only be possible by the effective communication of the accounting information. For this purpose, organizations are fond of establishing effective as well as efficient accounting information system so that there is the proper flow of accounting and financial information to the auditors. The role of the accounting information system is to collect necessary information from the various activities of the organization. After that these information is processed so that they can be used to the decision making process of the organization and the audit process. Lastly, they are stored in a safe place so that they can be used for further references. At the time of the audit information, the auditors need different kinds of data and information related to sales, purchase, inventory, debtors, creditors, receivables, payables and many others. With the help of the proper communication of accounting information, the auditors can verify the source of each figure in the financial reports and the accounting information system helps to deliver the necessary information to the auditors (Hall 2012). The audited financial report in the presence of all relevant and necessary accounting and financial information reflects the true financial position of the company. On the contrary, the mis communication of the accounting information to the auditors can lead to the preparation of the audited report that does not reflect the true financial position of the organization. This is the reason it is desired that there is a proper communication of financial and accounting information in the organization so that the internal as well as the external auditors can be helpful from that (Lobo and Zhao 2013). Hence, it can be concluded that there is a connection between auditing and the communication of accounting information. References DeZoort, F.T., Harrison, P.D. and Schnee, E.J., 2012. Tax Professionals' Responsibility for Fraud Detection: The Effects of Engagement Type and Audit Status.Accounting Horizons,26(2), pp.289-306. Glover, S.M., Prawitt, D.F. and Messier, W.F., 2014.Auditing assurance services: a systematic approach. McGraw-Hill Education. Grimm, S.D. and White, S.W., 2014. A Simulation Study of the Influence of PCAOB Regulatory Guidance on the Internal Control Audit Process: An Analysis of Relationships, Risk and Information Sharing.Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting (Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting, Volume 18) Emerald Group Publishing Limited,18, pp.33-67. Hall, J.A., 2012.Accounting information systems. Cengage Learning. Kaplan, R.S. and Atkinson, A.A., 2015.Advanced management accounting. PHI Learning. Kim, J., Nicolaou, A.I. and Vasarhelyi, M.A., 2013. The Impact of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems on the Audit Report Lag.Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting,10(1), pp.63-88. Lee, J.E., 2016. Internal control deficiencies and audit pricing: evidence from initial public offerings.Accounting Finance. Lobo, G.J. and Zhao, Y., 2013. Relation between audit effort and financial report misstatements: Evidence from quarterly and annual restatements.The Accounting Review,88(4), pp.1385-1412. Reason, J., 2016.Managing the risks of organizational accidents. Routledge. Seidel, T., 2014.The Effective Use of the Audit Risk Model at the Account Level. UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

12 Surprising Facts About Starfish

12 Surprising Facts About Starfish Starfish (or sea stars) are beautiful marine animals found in a variety of colors, shapes, and sizes. All starfish resemble stars, and though the most common have only five arms, some of these animals can grow up to 40 arms. The amazing sea creatures- part of a group of animals known as echinoderms- travel using their tube feet. They can regenerate lost limbs, and they can swallow large prey using their unusual stomachs. Sea Stars Are Not Fish Carlos Agrazal/EyeEm/Getty Images Although sea stars live underwater and are commonly called starfish, they are not true fish. They do not have gills, scales, or fins like fish do. Sea stars also move quite differently from fish. While fish propel themselves with their tails, sea stars have tiny tube feet to help them move along. Because they are not classified as fish, scientists prefer to call starfish sea stars. Sea Stars Are Echinoderms Starfish and purple sea urchin. Kathi Moore/EyeEm/Getty Images Sea stars belong to the phylum Echinodermata. That means they are related to sand dollars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and  sea lilies. Overall, this phylum contains over 6,000 species. Many echinoderms exhibit radial symmetry, meaning their body parts are arranged around a central axis. Many sea stars have five-point radial symmetry because their body has five sections. This means that they do not have an obvious left and right half, only a top side and a bottom side. Echinoderms also usually have spines, which are less pronounced in sea stars than they are in other organisms such as  sea urchins. There Are Thousands of Sea Star Species Colorful sea star in the Galapagos. Ed Robinson/Getty Images There are about 2,000 species of sea stars. Some live in the intertidal zone,  while others live in the  deep water  of the ocean. While many species live in tropical areas, sea stars can also be found in cold areas- even the polar regions. Not All Sea Stars Have Five Arms Sun star with many arms. Joe Dovala/Getty Images While many people are most familiar with the five-armed species of sea stars, not all sea stars have just five arms. Some species have many more, such as the sun star, which can have up to 40 arms.   Sea Stars Can Regenerate Arms Sea star regenerating four arms. Daniela Dirscherl/Getty Images Amazingly, sea stars can regenerate lost arms, which  is useful if the sea star is injured by a predator. It can lose an arm, escape, and grow a new arm later. Sea stars house most of their vital organs in their arms. This means that some species can even regenerate an entirely new sea star from just one arm and a portion of the stars central disc. It wont happen too quickly, though. It takes about a year for an arm to grow back. Sea Stars Are Protected by Armor Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci) on Coral Reef, Phi Phi Islands, Thailand. Borut Furlan/WaterFrame/Getty Images Depending on the species, a sea stars skin may feel leathery or slightly prickly. Sea stars have a tough covering on their upper side, which is made up of plates of calcium carbonate with tiny spines on their surface. A sea stars spines are used for protection from predators, which include birds, fish, and sea otters. One very spiny sea star is the aptly named crown-of-thorns starfish. Sea Stars Do Not Have Blood Closeup of the arms of a sea star under a pier, showing its tube feet. pfly/Flickr/CC BY-SA 2.0 Instead of blood, sea stars have a circulatory  system  made up  primarily of sea water. Seawater  is pumped into the animals  water vascular system  through its sieve plate. This is a sort of trap door called a  madreporite, which is often visible as a light-colored spot on the top of the  starfish. From the madreporite, the  sea water moves into the sea stars  tube feet, causing the arm to extend. Muscles within the tube feet are used to retract the limb. Sea Stars Move Using Their Tube Feet Tube Feet of Spiny Starfish. Borut Furlan/Getty Images Sea stars move using hundreds of tube feet, which are located on their underside. The tube feet are filled with sea water, which the sea star brings in through the madreporite on its top side. Sea stars can move quicker than you might expect. If you get a chance, visit a tide pool or aquarium and take a moment to watch a sea star moving around. It is one of the most amazing sights in the ocean. Tube feet also help the sea star hold its prey, including clams and mussels. Sea Stars Eat With Their Stomachs Inside-Out Karen Gowlett-Holmes/Getty Images Sea stars prey on bivalves like mussels and clams, as well as small fish, snails, and barnacles. If youve ever tried to pry the shell of a clam or mussel open, you know how difficult it is. However, sea stars  have a unique way of eating these creatures. A sea stars mouth is on its underside. When it catches its food, the sea star will wrap its arms around the animals shell and pull it open just slightly. Then it does something amazing. The sea star pushes its stomach through its mouth and into the bivalves shell. It then digests the animal and slides its stomach back into its own body. This unique feeding mechanism allows the sea star to eat larger prey than it would otherwise be able to fit into its tiny mouth. Sea Stars Have Eyes Common Sea Star (visible eye spots circled). Paul Kay/Getty Images Many people are surprised to learn that starfish have eyes. Its true. The eyes are there- just not in the place you would expect. Sea stars have an eye spot at the end of each arm. This means that a five-armed sea star has five eyes, while the 40-armed sun star has 40 eyes. Each sea star eye is very simple and looks like a red spot. It doesnt see much detail but it can sense light and dark, which is just enough for the environments the animals live in. All True Starfish Are in the Class Asteroidea Marcos Welsh/Design Pics/Getty Images Starfish belong to the animal class Asteroidea. These echinoderms all have several arms arranged around a central disk. Asteroidea is the classification for true stars. These animals are in a separate class from brittle stars and basket stars, which have a more defined separation between their arms and their central disk. Sea Stars Have Two Ways to Reproduce Doug Steakley/Getty Images Male and female sea stars are hard to tell apart because they look identical. While many animal species reproduce using only one method, sea stars are a little different. Sea stars can reproduce sexually. They do this by releasing sperm and eggs (called  gametes) into the water. The sperm fertilizes the gametes and produces swimming larvae, which eventually settle on the ocean floor, growing into adult sea stars. Sea stars can also reproduce asexually through regeneration, which is what happens when the animals lose an arm.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

End of the Cold War essays

End of the Cold War essays During World War II, many countries of the world came together to fight against the oppressive nations of Germany, Italy, Japan, and their allies. The United States, Russia, and Great Britain, who emerged as leaders of the fight against these adversaries, formed an alliance that was eventually able to overcome the threat that these three countries posed. However, after the war ended, the relationship between the United States and Russia went sour. While the friendship between the United States and Great Britain remained strong, tension between the Americans and Russians continued to escalate. Both countries built up their nuclear capabilities, while at the same time embarking on large-scale espionage missions against each other. In what later became known as the Cold War, the world was constantly on the brink of total nuclear war, and that threat did not conclude until the late 1980s, some forty years after the stalemate began. President Reagan, along with Soviet Secretary Gene ral Mikhail Gorbachev, diplomatically ended one of the most tense and militarily dangerous periods in the history of the world. Reagans strategic negotiating with the Soviets was the major catalyst that began the end of the Cold War. Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent Jimmy Carter in the fall of 1980 to win the Presidency of the United States. Reagan, the former movie star and governor of California, was known for his great communication skills, and his ability to stand strong on his issues while not seeming over-bearing. He came to power on the promise of pulling the United States out of its worst economic state since the Great Depression by cutting taxes, slashing government spending, and lifting a grain embargo against the Russians to aide American farmers. Reagan won easily over Carter, whose term had been plagued by economic struggles and foreign diplomacy blunders such as the Iran hostage affair that ended soon after Reagan took offic...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Article Review #4 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Article Review #4 - Essay Example The planners of this operation knew that in order to do so, the true scale of the convoy must be hidden from Axis knowledge; once the Axis do learn of it, their leaders must be kept from knowing its true objectives and their forces must be kept preoccupied far from the intended landing sites of the Allied forces. In his article â€Å"Fortuitous endeavor: intelligence and deception in Operation Torch†, Commander Patch pieced together the planning and execution of this ambitious undertaking and underscored the significance of military deception and signals intelligence to its success. Torch planning commenced in August 1942 with the formation of the Armed Forces Headquarters (AFHQ) led by General Eisenhower. During the planning, signals intelligence (SIGINT) of Allied forces was greatly enhanced when the British’s Government Code and Cipher School (GCCS) broke down high-grade Axis cipher codes, providing a source of intelligence information known as ULTRA. The intelligence information gathered by Allied forces helped shaped the strategic and operational framework of Torch. Particularly, SIGINT sources provided decrypts and Y-intelligence that informed Torch planners about weather conditions in Axis-controlled areas, accounts of Axis order of battle, movements of Axis shipping and naval assets, intentions of Axis leaders, and the Axis’ perceptions of the intent of Allied Forces. The latter helped Torch planners gauge the efficacy of their deception measures, a strategy they employed to help secure their covert operation. Deception measures in war strategies have been valued as far back as the time of Sun Tzu but it has never been used in the scale that Operation Torch intended. Here again, signals intelligence played a key role. The extensive double-agent network controlled by British forces planted information that was to confuse the Axis forces regarding the true objectives of the massive

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The Making Of the Black Revolutionaries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Making Of the Black Revolutionaries - Essay Example These small steps come from the struggles faced in everyday life, at school, in church, and the local restaurant. By remaining true to his personal convictions throughout his life, the revolutionary inside was allowed to grow. The book traces this evolution in Forman, and the people that he worked with in the civil rights movement, from being political activists to becoming powerful forces behind revolution. The book is divided into two parts and highlights the evolutionary change from political thought to action for social change. Book One, "A Constant Struggle", details the experiences of the author's early life and his experiences with the state of race relations in America from the 1930s through the 1950s. It is in these years that Forman forms his political views and forges his hunger to pursue social justice. The author is faced with the everyday hatred and discrimination that confronted blacks during this period, yet he does not preach about their evils. The author is a master at describing the situation and letting the reader draw their own conclusions. He tells the story of a black sharecropper that was evicted from her land and home because she registered to vote in Fayette County Tennessee in 1960. The author tells the story in Georgia Mae Turner's own words and simply reminds us, "The price is high for all acts of rebellion and Georgia Mae had paid dearly for hers" (124). It is this constant struggle that is addressed in Book One and contends that revolution is the continuous addressing of these injustices. One of the major threads that run throughout the book is that being a political revolutionary is a day to day struggle that deals with real people and real events. Forman sets the stage for the book in the opening chapters by describing his life in Mississippi and Chicago. Faced with discrimination and segregation, he was able to complete school, serve in the Air Force, and graduated from college. It's in these early years that the author forms his political ideas and their radical overtones. He writes, "This was economic in origin, but not just a matter of money. The issue was sheer survival, the survival of the black working-class in a hostile world" (54). Forman viewed the hostility in the world from the philosophy of W.E.B. DuBois and would be determined to use his talents to correct even the smallest injustice. The book is more than just the author's personal accounts of the struggle for civil rights. Book Two "A Band of Sisters and Brothers, in a Circle of Trust" is an accurate historical record of some of the most important organizations of the period. He details his work with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). The author is able to take the reader behind the scenes and meet the players who were influencing their policies and doing the difficult work. The stories are a reminder that the job of revolutionary is often confronted with compromise. When the SNCC, SCLC, and CORE leaders met to discuss their stand on Vietnam in 1966, there was wide disagreement on how to

Monday, November 18, 2019

Tennis Elbow Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Tennis Elbow - Essay Example Tennis elbow is likewise observed in individuals who lift a lot at the elbow and who usually do tedious wrist movements. Tennis elbow is now commonly being referred to as tennis epicondylosis, discarding the "itis" suffix, due to the absence of pathological evidence behind the inflammation (Servier and Wilson, 375 and Xplain, 1). The muscles responsible for straightening the fingers and wrist originate from a small bone protrusion on the outer part of the elbow. The pain brought about by lateral epicondylitis is focused on this side of the elbow, from which it might gradually spread through the upper arm and the outer region of the forearm. The soreness is especially felt around the projection if the outer side of the elbow is strained and if the wrist is bent upwards against opposing force. The pain may be occasionally felt farther in the hand while grasping. Once the elbow tendons are inflamed, the tissues would hardly heal by themselves since they are frequently used when the hand grasps or is utilized in daily activities (Conway, 43). Tennis elbow affects both men and women, and is more common to those at the age of 40 and above. The acute type of the injury is commonly observed in active, young athletes while the chronic form exists in older individuals (Brown, 267). A case study involving an individual suffering from tennis elbow was done and will be presented in this paper. The anatomy and causes of the injury were examined; and available treatments were compared based on their efficiency and advantages. Case Report A 50-year old man, fond of playing tennis as recreation, suffered from tennis elbow on his right arm that had been persistent for five months after a tournament. The patient was no longer capable of playing tennis. He already resorted to physical therapy wherein he attended twelve sessions for one and a half months, but his condition appeared to lack significant improvement. The patient was administered cortisone as part of the treatment but the medication provided only minimal comfort and temporary relief. After being injected with the therapeutic drug, he was able to play tennis again with his elbow brace or strap to provide support. However, the temporary comfort lasted for only two weeks. The symptoms eventually returned and the patient described the damage to be his worst experienced pain. Anatomy Involved in the Injury Muscles The muscles important in elbow function are the biceps, triceps, wrist flexors attached to the medial epicondyle, and wrist extensors which are connected to the lateral epicondyle (Thomas and others, 459). Bones and Joints The main bones of the elbow are that of the upper arm and the forearm. The elbow joint has a complex mechanism of movement. The end of the radius bone at the elbow can be characterized as a knob with a cup. It is smooth enough to allow gliding of the edges with the bone ulna (Servier and Wilson, 376). The elbow is the joint that helps bend the arm and rotate the wrist. It is composed of the humerus or the bone of the upper arm, and the radius and ulna which comprise the forearm. These bones are moved at the joints with the aid of muscles, which are in turn attached to the bones by tissues collectively known as tendons.